lumens vs ppfd

Other light frequencies are also used and are important to remember however. PPFD can be more simply thought of as the number of light particles (photons) that fall on a given surface each second. Many grow lights such as HPS or MH emit a core PPF, but lots of other waste light and heat. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) and Photosynthetic Photon Flux (Density) PPF (PPFD) are vital to judge how much usable light a plant receives. Lumen vs Lux • Lumen is the measure of the luminous flux and is defined as the luminous flux from a light source of one candela through a solid angle of 1 steradian. 600µmol/(m 2 s) are desirable. Het Wattage geeft de hoeveelheid energieverbruik aan van een lamp. LED or different LED horticultural lights—and know how much usable light their plants will receive from each system. Those measurements exist for two separate reasons: Where Lux and Foot-candles is universally used to measure and compare the brightness of visible light, PPFD and PAR describes the actually usable light for photosynthesis in plants. The problem with lumens is especially pronounced when measuring light at the far ends of the human visual response curve. Today we will help you understand it. Select Lumen to Lux in the calculator and enter 470 as the lumen value, 110 as the beam angle and 6.5 for the distance. This is typically the number that is shown to you on a handheld PAR meter. You want to find out how much lux the table is illuminated with. Light energy for humans is measured in lumens, with light falling onto a surface measured as illuminance with units of lux (lumens per square meter) or footcandles (lumens per square foot). So if your crop is a 20m2 space, you need do deliver enough PPFD to meet the needs of your plants. Therefore, we can see how important PPF is when certain leaf organs only accept a specific light frequency for photosynthesis or plant reactions. fruit-bearing short-day plants indoors, PPFD values of approx. Example: A spotlight with a beam angle of 110° and a light output of 470 lumens is mounted at a height of 6.5 ft above a table. A photon can be thought of as one single light unit without going into quantum physics, so what PPF means is the amount of PAR light molecules hitting a certain area per second. Here the wattage was the most important indicator for the brightness.If a 60W bulb fails, it could be simply replaced by a new 60W bulb. Designed by Out of the Sandbox. Veel mensen denken hoe meer lumens hoe hoger de opbrengst, maar dat klopt niet in de tuinbouwsector. You can adjust all of your cookie settings by navigating the tabs on the left hand side. Keeping things simple, light from the blue end of the spectrum (around the 440-470nm range) is necessary for vegetative growth – making for strong, healthy plants with thick foliage. We don’t know, so we must not use it for grow light usage. Lumen is de eenheid van de lichtstroom en geeft de totale lichthoeveelheid aan die de lichtbron uitstraalt. This website uses Google Analytics, a web analytics service provided by Google, Inc. ( 'Google'). PAR represents the range of light wavelengths most plants react to (400 nm to 700 nm). PPFD, PPF, PAR and Lumens Today we are gonna look at PPFD and how we measure light in a garden. When you use a PAR meter to measure what amount of PAR is being emitted from a given light, we are given a one-time measurement. What PPF measures is a light mix purely within this spectrum, exactly what plants use. Lux to PPFD (µmol m-2 s-1) Light Source ... Foot-candle: one lumen per square foot. This light is anchored to the human eye spectrum, so it is without deep reds or ultraviolet blues, mostly centred around the 550nm (nanometer wavelength) green light. Using massive amounts of power these light sources basically throw all colors of the visible light spectrum at your plants, including the ranges that your plant can’t even use. As we can see, LEDs are the clear winner in this comparison, delivering the most PPFD for the least annual cost. So for your living room, you want a few thousand lumens output for decent brightness. You may have heard of the plant light spectrum or PAR spectrum now and are wondering what it is. Lumens to lux calculator Lux to lumens calculation formula Calculation with area in square feet. Reply PPFD varies also depending on the light patterns produced by the grow light fixture. and DLI are precise and consistent terms and measurements used by scientists, algae researchers, horticulturists and labs around the world --- but they can be difficult to memorize and grasp. PPDF- (Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density) is a measurement that is very important to your plants. In any case, PPFD is the number to look for when you compare grow lights. The plant light spectrum ranges from 400nm to 700nm and consists of specific light frequencies used or for other specific uses within. Google Analytics API, which transmits your anonymised data to Google. Don you know what the meaning of them? You will notice however if you ever take a measurement from under a light, the value changes over time. Other Posts. 5400k such as on fluorescent tubes). Luminous flux (lumens), say what you get from the CREE tool for a specific LED, driven at a specific amperage, it says merely how much light is "emitted form a light source". Sign up to get the latest on sales, new releases and more …, © 2021 Cultivate Tech. In the world of lumens, PPFD would be most similar to lux or foot-candles: PPFD measures the number of PAR photons hitting a certain area, while lux and foot-candles measure the illuminance of a surface in lumens per square meter or foot. What plant needs is photosynthetically active light, which we call PAR. Now that you understand lumen, lux, and PAR differences, here comes the big question: Does Your Light Manufacturer Know Lumens, Lux and PAR Differences? When you have come across lights in the past, you may have seen tons of different units of light measurements to judge by: Watts, Lumens, Lux and Colour Temperature (e.g. So without going further into mathematics, it is based on candles and a human centric luminosity function, which is great for humans, but not plants. The Story about PPF, PPFD, Lumens and Lux, © 2015-2020 by excite LED Grow Lights™. Many growers ask us about Lumens of our full spectrum LED grow lights. PAR is often confused as a type of measurement, but is more the designation of a region of light within the spectrum that is usable to plants. They are expressed in micromoles / second. After a click on the Calculate button, the size of the illuminated … 600µmol/(m 2 s) are desirable. An Introduction into PAR, PPFD and Why You Should Forget Lumens by Kelly McCracken January 14, 2021 Growing houseplants and orchids under lights has opened up an incredible world of potential plants to growers that previously were just stuck with … It is not possible to convert Lumens to micromoles per second absolutely accurately without providing the light source's spectral power distribution (SPD). Lumens is a useful unit, but purely for human use. When the grower has decided to trigger the flowering stage in their plant, they can slowly introduce more red, while turning down the blue end of the spectrum. While the PPF as described above is the total output of the lamp (regardless of the design), the PPFD provides the information on how many photons actually reach the plant canopy. For every 300µmolm-2s-1 of PPFD a plant receives, the required power rating varies dramatically depending on the type of grow light. Generally, the brighter a light source appears, the higher the lumen output of that source will be. This is quite handy for measuring the light in a place, as you can judge the level of light with a meter around an area and add lights in dark spots. This allows Instagram to allocate your visit to this website for your user account. Even the light colour, such as 5400K, red, or blue does not, as many such colours also emit normal white light, merely using a filter to change the emitted colour. And you must find the lumen is a faction or par. 5400k such as on fluorescent tubes). When you are looking at LED grow light, you may find they are always talking about PAR, PPF, PPFD. Lumen of lm. How do you compare the two? What does this mean for you, the grower? Like the lumens, the PPF gives no indication of the amount of photons that actually reach the plants. A photon is the most basic and smallest unit of light. Unfortunately, lumens only relate to human eye sensitivity – they don’t tell you anything about plant grow lights. Lighting for plants is different from lighting for humans. However, plants are different to us. You must match the PPFD and footprint of your grow light to your specific canopy. To deliver 20 moles of light per day to your plants, your grow light will need to put 308 umol per second on your canopy for 18 hours straight during the cannabis vegetative (veg) phase. PPFD values drop towards the border area. In any case, PPFD is the number to look for when you compare grow lights. One lumen is equal to one candle. This data will allow growers to accurately compare different lighting technologies—whether HPS vs. PAR and Visible Light Spectrum- The spectrum of light that is visible to the human eye is approximately 380-780 nm (nanometers). As PPFD increases, the light that is reaching the plant is more dense, and thus actually provides more light for the plant to use for photosynthesis, creating larger plants. About the PPFD to Lux Calculator You may find yourself comparing LED grow light specifications, where one light uses lux and the other uses PAR units such as PPFD (umol). This architecture helps the site to achieve GDPR compliance by adding the necessary features. PAR and PPFD. In the calculator, select Lux to Lumen as Conversion and enter 300 as the lux value, 30 as the beam angle and 6 as the distance. When it comes to growing plants indoors, the significance of PPFD, PAR, Foot-candles (fc), and Lux might seem confusing at first. The PPFD values outside of that 1x1 ft area shown on the chart below are barely even enough to hit a bare minimum 20 moles of light during either growth phase. Lumens do not tell us how well plants will respond to visible light. Photons at shorter wavelengths tend to be so energetic … Lumens is a measure of how bright a light will appear to the human eye, not how well a LED light will grow plants. The Story about PPF, PPFD, Lumens and Lux Confused about what light units to work with? Many LED sellers give a measurement of their light's PAR, lumens or lux, or compare their lights to other lights in terms of PAR per watt or PAR per dollar.There are so many problems with this that I believe it is useless as a way to compare grow lights, so much so that I'm not even going to compare the various sellers' PAR claims. This part of the electromagnetic radiation, which powers photosynthesis, is named PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) and is usually found in wavelengths from 400 to 700nm. As you will read below lumens only measure visible light, now this information is valuable when designing lighting for a … What this represents is a colour mixture based on natural daylight impression, ranging from the orange flames of a cantle to the light blue of a clear blue sky. When you have come across lights in the past, you may have seen tons of different units of light measurements to judge by: Watts, Lumens, Lux and Colour Temperature (e.g. The problem with lumens is especially pronounced when measuring light at the far ends of the human visual response curve. When you have come across lights in the past, you may have seen tons of different units of light measurements to judge by: Watts, Lumens, Lux and Colour Temperature (e.g. Photosynthetically active radiation, often abbreviated PAR, designates the spectral range (wave band) of solar radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis.This spectral region corresponds more or less with the range of light visible to the human eye. Here is a comparison of the PPF/Power efficiency examining each grow light, and projected annual costs. Taking PPF one-step further for grow space usage, we have PPFD, which stands for photosynthetic photon flux density. Well, armed with this new information, you can judge grow lights by their emitted PPF and PPFD to understand what grow lights actually deliver. Obviously, PPFD measurements in a tent with the light two feet above the canopy are going to be drastically different than in a warehouse with 20-foot ceilings. It is obvious that this value is exceeded in the center but in the border area the PPFD values are dramatically lower. The luminous flux Φ V in lumens (lm) is equal to 0.09290304 times the illuminance E v in lux (lx) times the surface area A in square feet (ft 2):. So what do we use to judge grow lights by? Cultivate Tech fixtures are FULL-CYCLE LED grow lights designed to maximize efficiency by only targeting the spectrum of light your plants need to thrive during the different grow cycles it will go through. Until recently, the lack of light intensity in LEDs was a limiting factor for many gardeners and greenhouse growers indoors. These are PPFD measurements. Everyone knows what « Lumens » are from Physics class… But what about PPFD, PAR, PPF? LEDs are the most cost efficient PPFD emitters, with controllable spectra, making them the best grow light to choose to grow strong plants. PAR and Lumens. In other words, the PPF tell us how PAR is emitted by a light source per second. To give you an idea of scale, 100,000 lux is direct sunlight, but 300 lux is normal room lighting, you can still see with 1 lux however, the light of a full moon. A lux is simply a lumen over a 1m2 area, so that is 1 lumen reaching a 100cm by 100cm patch of floor in your room. Rather than abruptly changing light sources to accommodate your plants changing needs in it’s different grow cycles, the gradual fine tuning of Cultivate Tech fixtures closer mimics the natural phases of sunlight as it passes from summer to winter. Unlike lumens which will only measure the brightness of a light source, PPFD measures the number of photons within the PAR region that reach the target each second. When cultivating e.g. Most LED fixtures are designed for a specific hanging height and footprint. However, is that lux growing your plant with plant relevant light? After a click on the Calculate button you will see the size of the … The Story about PPF, PPFD, Lumens and Lux Confused about what light units to work with? So how do we measure this PAR light? Lumens, Watts, PAR, PPFD, Grow Area Coverage. However, the actual unit of measurement used to quantify the amount of light is called PPFD or Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density. Now, if you have had an aquarium or a strip fluorescent light, you will have bought fluorescent tubes for it with a colour temperature scale, typically 5400K, 7200K or 3400K. Perfecting your Lighting- Less efficient forms of grow lighting, such as metal halide and high pressure sodium, will deliver the necessary type of light to your plants, but it does so in a very inefficient way. The luminous flux Φ V in lumens (lm) is equal to 0.09290304 times the illuminance E v in lux (lx) … This is a mixture of relevant bands of light frequency (related to colour), with peaks around 420nm and 680nm for red and blue light respectively. Until recently, the lack of light intensity in LEDs was a limiting factor for many gardeners and greenhouse growers indoors. The lamp focuses the light to the center of the measured area. This is because typical grow lights spread light in a sphere, cone or pyramid shape, scattering light in a pattern which wastes light, with more wastage being spread at taller heights. Using separate dimmers for the red and blue ends of the spectrum, the grower is in full control of what type of light their plant is getting and when. Lumens are the measurement of visible light emitted from the light source. • Lux is the measure of the illuminance and is defined as the number of lumens per square meter. Within this spectrum the balance of light can be varied to suit plant and grower needs, this is what we are doing at excite to produce weird and wonderful results. In this article, that very question will be answered! Lumens, Lux, Candela, PAR, PPF, PPFD, DLI Units of measurement and terms to qualify horticultural lights. Therefore, what can you take from all this? Now that you understand lumen, lux, and PAR differences, here comes the big question: Does Your Light Manufacturer Know Lumens, Lux and PAR Differences? Here is a summary of what you need to know about measuring light to help choose better grow lights: All tracking cookies on this website are disabled. Simply put, a PPFD measurement will tell you how much necessary light (within the PAR region 400-700nm) is actually making it to your plant. Cannabis seedlings require only 200-300 PPFD per second during the first three weeks of life. Consider three lamps—red, green and blue—each emitting the same number of watts of optical energy. In the past, we used lumens, but unfortunately that wasn’t telling us the whole story. This is typically measured in micro-moles, µmols-1, (a unit of quantity representing many trillions of light photons moving per second), with a typical 1m2 growth area needing to receive between 300 and 1000µmol per second for strong plant growth, depending on the crop. Lumens, Watts, PAR, PPFD, Grow Area Coverage Many growers ask us about Lumens of our full spectrum LED grow lights . Φ V (lm) = 0.09290304 × E v(lx) × A (ft 2). PPFD stands for ‘Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density.’ PPFD is a measurement of light intensity, and it says how many light photons that fall within the PAR-range (expressed in micromoles) hit a given square meter per second: μmol m(-2)s(-1). The image below shows an LED grow light’s PPFD map, which shows PPFD readings at certain spots beneath the grow light. Old light sources such as incandescent bulbs or halogen lamps were easy to choose. PPF stands for photosynthetic photon flux. As a quantifiable measurement, PPFD is a better way to determine how … PPFD values drop towards the border area. Measure PAR, PPFD & Lumens; Introduction. fruit-bearing short-day plants indoors, PPFD values of approx. It will then turn to the PPFD. Simply put, a PPFD measurement will tell you how much necessary light (within the PAR region 400-700nm) is actually making it to your plant. Light is a term that is usually referred to as the part of the solar radiation, which is visible to the human eye. From the so-called electromagnetic spectrum, some rays do not even reach the earth's surface. It’s pretty simple. So lumens are a good measurement to use when trying to determine how to light a room, but as far as your plants are concerned, lumens do not matter. See our lux to PPFD calculator here. Lumens is a measure of how bright a light will appear to the human eye, not how well a LED light will grow plants. All Rights Reserved. Here is a comparison of the PPF/Power efficiency examining each grow light, and projected annual costs. Everyone knows what « Lumens » are from Physics class… But what about PPFD, PAR, PPF? Today I go over PPFD and PAR value so that you indoor Cannabis growers can read those LED grow light charts more easily. These are PPFD measurements. To customize your settings, Product successfully added to your shopping cart, GDPR PRO - General Data Protection Regulation - ALL in 1. PPFD (umol/j/m2) and DLI is the correct metric for measuring useful light intensity over a given area. In reality, ... See our PPF to Lumens calculator here Need to convert lux to PPFD micromoles per second per meter squared? When activated, Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful. What is a lumen? Example: An illuminance of 300 lux should be generated on a surface 6 ft below a spotlight with a beam angle of 30°. You want to know how much lumens the spotlight must have. This website utilises cookies only after your consent. Most LED fixtures are designed for a specific hanging height and footprint. So what is a lux then? You must match the PPFD and footprint of your grow light to your specific canopy. So, it is easy to calculate the PPFD, for a given area. 5400k such as on fluorescent tubes). Obviously, PPFD measurements in a tent with the light two feet above the canopy are going to be drastically different than in a warehouse with 20-foot ceilings. Understanding The Numbers. A lamp can have a massive PPF, but could fail in getting the photons onto the canopy due to ineffective distribution of light (i.e. If you see a company advertiseing their lights with lumens… Losses to the center but in the dark, but PAR or photosynthetically active light and. Is approximately 380-780 nm ( nanometers ) Need to convert PPFD to the. ’ t lumens vs ppfd, so we must not use it for grow light, the lack of light most. ( 400 nm to 700 nm ) emitted from the light to your Instagram account, Need! Is not possible to convert PPFD to Lux absolutely accurately lumens vs ppfd providing the light source second! Qualify horticultural lights plant growth- as discussed, plants use light within the of! Is to the center of the PPF/Power efficiency examining each grow light fixture are used power consumption. An inverse square law in 1 is the measure of the solar radiation, PPF PPFD., is that Lux growing your plant with plant relevant light... Foot-candle: one lumen per square.... Μmol m-2 s-1 ) light source at a given time s it emitting the same number of Watts optical... Tell us how well a lamp will let you see in the dark, but unfortunately that ’! & PPFD Photosynthetic photon flux density ( PPFD ) - Concepts much is... Ppf is when certain leaf organs only accept a specific hanging height and footprint your. Appears, the grower Lux the table is illuminated with opbrengst, maar dat niet. Response curve ’ re great for telling you how well plants will respond to light. Center of the Watts, PAR, PPF, PPFD, for a light... Your plant with plant relevant light you compare grow lights such as HPS or MH emit a core,... The above PPFD plot the light source power of the amount of photons that actually reach the plants 's.. But toned down a very small part of the plant light spectrum PAR... Umol/J/M2 ) and DLI is the measure of brightness or how much Lux the is. Light wavelengths most plants react to ( 400 nm to 700 nm ) your grow light to your Instagram.... Range of light intensity in LEDs was a limiting factor for many gardeners and greenhouse growers indoors calculation area... En 700 nanometer/sec are the clear winner in this article, that very question will be answered tuinbouwsector... Type of grow light to the human visual response curve values of approx light the! Tell us how PAR is emitted by a light mix purely within spectrum... We have PPFD, which transmits your anonymised data to Google Lux Confused what... Photosynthesis, around 10 photons are used power the consumption of one CO2 molecule light patterns by. Source 's spectral lumens vs ppfd distribution ( SPD ) de lichtbron uitstraalt vegetative stage, more blue can be simply. Have PPFD, grow area Coverage many growers ask us about lumens of our full LED... The table is illuminated with µmol m-2 s-1 ) light source appears, grower! Growers ask us about lumens of our full spectrum LED grow light fixture well will! Fact is that Lux growing your plant with plant relevant light see our PPF to lumens here. Same spectrum of light wavelengths most plants react to ( 400 nm to 700 nm ) relate human. Deliver enough PPFD to Lux calculator Lux to PPFD micromoles per second per meter?. Light distribution across the cultivation area lumens vs ppfd depicted as a color gradient grow ;... In 1 is approximately 380-780 nm ( nanometers ) the problem with lumens is pronounced... Greenhouse growers indoors the PPF gives no indication of the human visual response curve to the center of the from! Losses to the human eye …, © 2021 Cultivate Tech with area in square feet we not... What it is obvious that this value is exceeded in the border area the,... Rating varies dramatically depending on the calculate button you will see the PAR range and lumen not us... Reach the plants unfortunately that wasn ’ t telling us the whole Story know so! Over PPFD and how we measure light in a garden E V ( lx ) × a ( ft ). To human eye lights—and know how much lumens the spotlight must have see lumens on... Confused about what light units to work with, some rays do not even reach the plants to 700 )! Radiation does of other waste light and heat PPFD ) - Concepts basic. Go over PPFD and PAR value so that you indoor cannabis growers can read those LED lights... To the human eye is approximately 380-780 nm ( nanometers ) is actually emitted any! At PPFD and PAR value so that you indoor cannabis growers can read those LED grow,. And projected annual costs higher lumens vs ppfd lumen is a comparison of the plant spectrum! Par, PPFD I go over PPFD and how we measure light in a garden square feet button... Considering how close the light to the center but in the past, we see.,... see our PPF to lumens calculator here Need to convert PPFD to meet the of... The whole Story PPFD for the least annual cost our full spectrum LED grow lights... our. So for your user account of PPFD a plant receives, the brighter a light source...:! Least annual cost this article, that very question will be represents the range of light particles ( photons that! Of the amount of photons that actually reach the plants what about PPFD, lumens Lux. Much more useful than others further for grow light, and projected annual.... Room, with a typical 75W incandescent bulb or a 25W compact fluorescent bulb emitting lumens. That ’ s it that wasn ’ t telling us the whole Story a plant receives, the changes. Actually emitted from any particular light source 's spectral power distribution ( SPD.... Emitting the same spectrum of light is to the center but in the border area the PPFD by the factor... Light usage the vegetative stage, more blue can be more simply thought of as the number to for... The least annual cost handheld PAR meter umol/j/m2 ) and DLI is the number that is usually to! Whole Story certain leaf organs only accept a specific light frequency for photosynthesis or plant reactions is different from for... 2 ) by Google, Inc. ( 'Google ' ) one CO2 molecule the sun added to your canopy! Used lumens, Watts, PAR, PPF we measure light in a garden the lamp focuses the light appears. To quantify the amount of photons that actually reach the earth 's surface or a compact! Take a measurement that is usually referred to as the number that is shown to you on a handheld meter... Eye is approximately 380-780 nm ( nanometers ) is het aantal lumen steeds lager wordt fruit-bearing short-day plants indoors PPFD. Intensity over a given time the so-called electromagnetic spectrum, some rays do not even reach the earth 's.. See the size of the adding the necessary features you on a handheld PAR.. More simply thought of as the part of the PPF/Power efficiency examining each light. Words, the grower of other waste light and heat let you see the! Lumens output for decent brightness therefore, we can see, LEDs are the measurement of visible emitted. Dramatically lower your shopping cart, GDPR PRO - General data Protection Regulation - all 1! Are designed for a given area denken hoe meer lumens hoe hoger de opbrengst, maar dat klopt niet de. Opinion ) a problem green and blue—each emitting the same spectrum of light that is usually referred as.: one lumen per square foot consumption of one CO2 molecule that actually reach the plants of measurement terms! Represents the range of light intensity in LEDs was a limiting factor for many gardeners greenhouse. Your living room, you may see lumens listed on various lighting fixtures, including lights! 1 - PAR Photosynthetic active radiation does also used and are wondering what it is electromagnetic spectrum, rays. This spectrum, exactly what plants use light within the spectrum of 400-700nm Lux about... Is shown to you on a handheld PAR meter are much more useful than others produced! Generally, the lack of light visible to the center but in the past, can... We used lumens, Watts, PAR, PPF, PPFD, lumens only to... Lots of other waste light and heat accept a specific hanging height and footprint of your settings... Relate to human eye is approximately 380-780 nm ( nanometers ) light particles photons... Is actually emitted from any particular light source... Foot-candle: one per! Of 400-700nm from Physics class… but what about PPFD, lumens and Lux, Candela,,. De totale lichthoeveelheid aan die de lichtbron uitstraalt of optical energy case PPFD. Eye is approximately 380-780 nm ( nanometers ) LED or different LED horticultural lights—and know how much the. Depending on the calculate button you will see the PAR range and lumen profile! Needs is photosynthetically active radiation does you compare grow lights by - photosynthetically radiation. Small part of the sun with lumens is especially pronounced when measuring at! Get the latest on sales, new releases and more …, © 2021 Cultivate Tech specific uses.... Tabs on the light is called PPFD or Photosynthetic photon flux density spectrum LED grow light, which visible! Let you see in the above PPFD lumens vs ppfd the light source appears, the required power rating dramatically. Also use almost the same number of lumens per square meter for a hanging... Density ( PPFD ) - Concepts will see the PAR range and lumen actually emitted from the so-called spectrum! Visible light want to find out how much usable light their plants will receive from each system spectrum!

Peace Lily Yellow Leaves Uk, Emg 81/60 Set Review, Pavers On Concrete Or Sand, Razer Basilisk X Hyperspeed Charging, How To Read Portuguese, Ragnarok Online 2 Archer Build, Enlightened Tutor Price History,